A Brief Explanation of Thin Film Coating Through the Means of Thermal Evaporation

Thermal evaporation has become one of the most commonly used ways to coat a substrate.

EXILIS_MDOne of the most common methods of thin film deposition is through the process of thermal evaporation, which incorporates the use of vacuum technology to apply coats of pure materials that stick to the surface of various objects. The benefits that a thermal evaporation system provides to the user range from efficient coatings to wide surface area reach. In most cases, the use of thermal evaporation is preferred due to its ease of use and efficiency.

The Process of Coating

The coatings that are created through the vacuum are called films. These films range in thickness and can be a single material or multiple materials in a layered type of structure.

The materials that are used can be pure atomic elements that include both nonmetals and metals like oxides and nitrides. The object that is coated is known as the substrate and can be anything from a semiconductor wafer to medical device coatings. The possibilities are endless as technological advancement has led to a wide array of uses.

Thermal evaporation begins by heating a solid material inside a vacuum chamber, which forces it to reach a temperature that releases vapor pressure. This evaporated material will then traverse the chamber and hit the substrate at a designated speed, which forms the coating, or film.

The material is often heated to its melting point and turns into liquid, which is located at the bottom of the chamber in a crucible setup. The vapor will then rise from the bottom of the chamber and inverted in appropriated fixtures – which will then proceed to coat the substrate.


Denton Vacuum, LLC is a reputable supplier of thin film coating systems. For processes, such as UHV sputter deposition, contact Denton Vacuum, LLC for their expertise advice. For more information visit them online today.

Two tips for dealing with shopping cart abandonment at checkout

2Written by Secure Net Shop

Do you have shoppers visit your site, spend time picking items and then leave before they checkout?

If you are, you are not alone. This behavior is called online shopping cart abandonment. This is a common issue for ecommerce sites and can happen due to a variety of issues. Usually the issue is present at the point of abandonment. In the case of the checkout page, it can boil down to two basic issues that can be fixed quite easily:

Full shopping cart

Most shopping cart systems default to an abbreviated view of the shopping cart at checkout. You see the options to proceed without the checkout and an order summary but not much else. This issue is caused by users not completely certain of the details of the items they are ordering and a short summary is not sufficient. When the only course of action is to exit checkout, then they just close to the tab and go somewhere else. Fix this by showing a full shopping cart at checkout.

Full product details

Another point in relation to the above. Along with the full summary should be all the relevant details. Let’s use online clothes shopping. The checkout should the full list along with each specific option prominently. The options could be color, size, fit etc. In addition the quantity of each should be shown right next to the item. In addition the product images are essential, so the images should be high quality, clear and ideally represent the color chosen.

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The Similarities Shared Between RNA Synthesis and DNA Synthesis

It’s been known that RNA and DNA carry out the process of transcription in a similar fashion.

RNA Synthesis

There are numerous similarities between RNA and DNA during the process of synthesis. When it comes to transcription, or RNA synthesis, there are four stages that occur: initiation, binding, elongation, and termination. All of these stages are extremely intricate and detailed, but, they all require RNA polymers to be bound to a template strand of DNA. Now, DNA plays an important role in the entire synthesis process. Essentially, they’re the template from which RNA copies from. The RNA nucleotides will go through a variety of sequences throughout the synthesis process until it reaches the specific sequence that it needs. It then detaches itself from the DNA followed by terminating the entire process.

DNA Synthesis

The process of DNA synthesis is fairly similar to the RNA synthesis process in that involves the binding of polymers. But, as it proceeds through the sequencing stages it becomes much more complicated, involving the creation and identification of new strands. When the DNA polymerases synthesize, there’s something known as a lagging strand that is created alongside the process. To help understand this, think of two strands synthesizing at the same time. However, one strand will synthesize continuously while the other strand follows discontinuously. This gap is what creates the lagging strand. The process of DNA synthesis then proceeds similar in the way that RNA synthesis does until the DNA template directs it to stop.

The Bottom Line

Both RNA and DNA synthesis work in a similar fashion to each other. They both go through the synthesis steps and discontinue upon the creation of the sequence. Additionally, they also follow similar patterns during transcription. Although DNA synthesis is viewed as the more complex process, RNA synthesis can almost be viewed as a simplified version.


 

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Why Apple is gaining market share in the PC industry

mysystemsjournal2The Apple Macintosh line of computers have been gaining market share in the PC market lately. In a world where almost every PC manufacturer is losing market share, and taking significant losses, Apple is the one organization gaining share and making a healthy profit. This is primarily due to the halo effect of the iPhone. There is however more to its recent growth.

A lot of companies now have a bring your own device policy and treat your computer usage as a rental for each day. Most organizations purchase standard issue laptops and desktops and provide those to employees. Under new bring your own device policies, employees buy the computer of their choice. They are provided a daily “rental” for that computer and have to pay for any difference out of pocket. This has meant more Macs in the workplace as end users get to decide what computer they can use.

It has also helped that giants like IBM have discovered that Macs have a lower total cost of ownership over the long term and are in the process of migrating the entire 100,000+ user base to Macs. IBM have discovered lower Helpdesk and support costs along with faster onboarding of users when it comes to Macs. Previously one helpdesk technician was required for every 15 pc users, but with their recent Mac experience, IBM maintain a single technician for every 1000 Macs.

With these gains in the enterprise, a strong presence in the education market, expect Apple’s share of the market to grow for years to come.

Three Essential Tools for Any Windows User

mysystemsjournal1Getting the most out of your computer involves using the right software. There is a such a lot of free and paid software out there that despite lots of reviews it can be difficult to find the right ones. Here are three great applications you might have missed:

Teamviewer

You can use teamviewer to connect and take control of another computer (with their permission, of course). But more importantly, it allows you to connect to your computer from a remote location. This is useful for connecting to your home pc to either shut it down, copy some data to a dropbox or even help someone who is using the computer.

7-zip

This is the single archive file manager that can take care of most of the major archive types. The most important part here is that it is free. You can create or access zip and rar files, or just use 7zip format. For the power use 7zip has several advanced features that most basic archival programs lack. This includes features such as security, test and zip etc.

Notepad++

A great replacement for Notepad. Notepad++ has some advanced options and is perfect for coders or anyone who has to deal with a lot of text files. You can search all text files within directories with specific wildcards.

The Best Cloud Storage Providers

mysystemsjournal4There is less and less of an emphasis on local storage when purchasing computers or phones. This is mostly due to a lot of services moving online. Streaming video services like Netflix negate the need to store video or our hard drives. In the same vein, services like Spotify and Apple Music mean we don’t need to keep our massive music collections on any of our devices, even our phones. For all our other storage needs, there are several cloud storage providers to choose from:

Dropbox

This service was the most popular. Due to being written into almost every major iOS app, it grew from startup to a billion dollar company. Although its star has faded recently due in large part to growing competition, its integration with iOS apps means that it still is the way to go for iPhone and iPad users.

iCloud

One of the biggest complaints with iCloud was its lack of stability and space. While you still need to purchase additional space, Apple has fixed all other issues with the service. Its popularity is growing within apps and is probably the best choice if you are all-in on the Apple ecosystem.

Google Drive

After a late launch and a mixed start, Google Drive has finally evolved into a mature cloud storage product. For mixed environments Google Drive is the best storage provider available. Excellent integration into Android, iOS support along with Windows and Mac clients give it a multi platform edge.

How Warfare Changed Calculations

WarfareBy Samuel Phineas Upham

World Wars I and II significantly changed how we used calculators. It’s strange to consider that dropping bombs required greater computational urgency than sending a man to the moon, the latter being accomplished with the use of a slide ruler, but the reality is that warfare and math go hand in hand. For the military to perform precision air strikes, or to shoot down incoming planes with any sense of accuracy, real-time calculations had to be performed.

Math had another coveted property: encoding. Using mathematic principles applied to language or numbers could produce a code for communication. The enemy on both sides struggled throughout World War II to gather intelligence in order to crack these codes. A great deal of money was poured into programs designed to crack intelligence codes and decipher communications to gain the upper hand in war.

Most of these attempts were more like machinery you’d find in a factory, complete with turning gears and rotating cylinders. It wasn’t until 1946 that the first object resembling what we’d recognize as a modern computer came to be. ENIAC (the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) was basically a large calculator. It was designed to perform calculations rapidly, and had the ability to hold a ten digit memory. It was a marvel for its time, easily thousands of times faster than anything that had come before it.

It wasn’t until the miniaturization of valves and tubes that the office calculator began to take shape. The basic design used push buttons and a modest storage to perform a range of calculations, only evolving throughout the ages to the desktop you’re no doubt reading this article on.


About the Author: Samuel Phineas Upham is an investor at a family office/ hedgefund, where he focuses on special situation illiquid investing. Before this position, Phin Upham was working at Morgan Stanley in the Media and Telecom group. You may contact Phin on his Samuel Phineas Upham website or Twitter.

Measuring Stress using your Smartphone

mysystemsjournal3Stress has been shown to cause several diseases and be detrimental to your health. Now there is a way to measure that stress using your cellphone. There are two methods. They both use the same technology, known as Heart Rate Variability (HRV).

Heart rate variability is the measurement of the time between heart beats. Although counter intuitive, a steady heartbeat with little to no variation is actually considered to be a sign of physiological stress. A healthy low stress individual would have a heartbeat with a high degree of variability.

The two methods are both smartphone based but vary on the method of getting the heartbeat data. The first method requires a bluetooth heart rate monitor. That data is fed into a HRV app and then the data is analyzed and current stress levels are displayed. This is the most accurate method but involves purchasing a heart rate monitor. To maximize accuracy, a chest strap based heart rate monitor is preferred.

The second method, is to use the camera of the smartphone to analyze your heartbeat. Although not as accurate, it has been shown to correlate very well with dedicated heart rate monitors. This is also the cheapest and most accessible method for most users. People who are not the most physically active and have no use for an actual heart rate monitor will find this method the most useful.

Microsoft Unveils New Corporate Philanthropy Division

Microsoft plans on expanding their philanthropic section into an integrated organization.

Microsoft has been long known for their corporate philanthropy. In 2015, Microsoft kicked off their Windows 10 launch with a $10 million gift to charity. And, it doesn’t stop there. In January of this year, Microsoft donated $1 billion worth of Cloud Computing Services to charities.

A Commitment to Helping Others

By the end of 2015, Microsoft fulfilled their commitment to corporate philanthropy by creating a new organization known as Microsoft Philanthropies. CEO Satya Nadella clearly defined how he wants to empower every person to achieve more in the world. What’s his goal? He wants to create change in the world through the use of Microsoft technology.

Disconnected From the World

Microsoft is rapidly expanding. Their products have reached countries all over the world. But, this isn’t enough for Nadella. He claims that too many of technology’s benefits do not reach the people who need them. Everything from poverty to displaced communities, a multitude of challenges prevents technology from benefiting families everywhere. Nadella wants to change this and provide communities the technology and information that they need.

Steve Doctrow, EVP of Integrated Marketing at Rogers & Cowan, along with Richard Davis, CFO of Rogers & Cowan, partnered with Microsoft on numerous occasions for marketing campaigns. Working with Microsoft, he applauded them for integrating philanthropy within their company values.

Microsoft Philanthropies also plans to invest in digital inclusion programs as well as partnerships. Through these relations they will integrate the technical talents of their employees and brand to reach out and achieve a greater outcome for the world.

How to Access Geo Blocked Content

mysystemsjournal3

Netflix recently launched its services in an additional 130 countries. Amidst all the fanfare, what they did not mention was that not all countries would get the same catalog as Netflix USA. They did hint at different licensing restrictions for different shows. It turns out the differences are quite large. Most countries have less than 20% of the complete catalog.

For Netflix and other services that limit their services to specific countries, users ended up using third party services to use the full catalog. There are two main ways of doing this.

The first are called SmartDNS services. DNS is how website names are resolved into actual server addresses. Once you sign up for a Smart dns service, you change the DNS servers on your router. The next time you call up the Netflix website, it redirects it to a server owned by the dns provider. They then route traffic through their network and it looks like you are coming from their network. This allows you to select any geographic territory they support.

The second method is through a VPN. A VPN, knows as a virtual private network, allows you to connect to a server in the target country and then you are basically operating through a network tunnel from that country. This method is more secure as it does not involve any of your traffic passing through a server owned by the dns provider. In addition, traffic on VPNs are usually encrypted.

Both of these methods will cost you. Usually in monthly subscription fees. But be warned, these services are constantly blocked by service like Netflix and Spotify.